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 Legal wild species and reptiles status in Greece + Cites explanations

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Date d'inscription : 19/06/2008

MessageSujet: Legal wild species and reptiles status in Greece + Cites explanations   Jeu 16 Oct - 14:28

Number and Status of Species

Known Species

The Number of known Species refers to the total number of known, described, and recorded species in a given country. Total numbers for all species groups include both endemic and non-endemic species (a species that is found in a particular region and nowhere else is said to endemic to that region).
Numbers may also include introduced species. Figures are not necessarily comparable among countries because taxonomic concepts and the extent of knowledge about actual species numbers vary. Country totals of species are underestimates of actual species numbers.

The number of known Plants include vascular plant species (flowering plants, conifers, cycads and fern species), but do not include mosses. Known Mammals exclude marine mammals. Known Birds include only birds that breed in that country, not those that migrate or winter there. The number of known Fish include both freshwater and marine species.
Data are collected by the United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) from a variety of sources, including, but not limited to: national reports from the convention on biodiversity, other national documents, independent studies, and other texts.
Data are updated on a continual basis as they become available; however, updates vary widely by country. While some countries (UNEP-WCMC estimates about 12) have data that were updated in the last 6 months, other species estimates have not changed since the data were first collected in 1992.

The complete UNEP-WCMC dataset from which Known Species of Mammals, Birds, Plants, Reptiles, and Amphibians were extracted represents only about 2% of the total species of the world. As a result, the numbers reported here are vast underestimates of the actual species worldwide. Mammals and birds are better known and represented than other taxonomic groups. Invertebrates in the kingdom Animalia, the kingdom Protista, and the kingdom Monera are not included in these country profiles.
Data on Known Species of Mammals, Birds, Plants, Reptiles, and Amphibians are based on a compilation of available data from a large variety of sources. They are not based on species checklists. Data have been collected over the last decade without a consistent approach to taxonomy. Additionally, while the number of species in each country does change, not all countries are updated systematically, and some data may not reflect recent trends.

Threatened Species

The number of Threatened Species for include "all full species categorized at the global level as Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable." Subspecies, introduced species, species whose status is insufficiently known, and species whose status has not been assessed are excluded.

Threatened species are classified in one of 3 categories:
1. Critically Endangered: includes species facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future.
2. Endangered: includes species that are not "Critically Endangered" but are facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future
3. Vulnerable: includes species facing a high risk of extinction in the wild in the medium-term future.
For each threat category, five criteria A-E are used to classify species in one of the three categories mentioned above:
A- Declining population
B- Small population and decline or fluctuation
C- Small population size and decline
D- Very small population/very restricted distribution
E- Quantitative analysis (e.g. Population Viability Analysis)

Data on threatened species are compiled and maintained by the IUCN in their Red List of Threatened Animals and the World List of Threatened Trees.
Generally, the information presented in the current IUCN Red List represents an accumulation of knowledge derived from previously published Red Lists.

In some cases, assessments are the product of group discussion, but often they represent the judgement of individual Specialist Group members. In order to ensure greater accuracy and transparency in the listing process, a peer review system of Red List Evaluators was initiated. Designated Red List Authorities are responsible for ensuring that all species they are responsible for are documented and re-assessed at regular intervals.

For more detailed information please refer to the original source at: http://www.redlist.org/info/categories_criteria2001.html.

Data on threatened species of mammals, birds, plants, reptiles, and amphibians underestimate the total number of threatened species in these groups worldwide. To date, threatened species assessments have been undertaken for 100% of described birds and mammals, for less than 15% of described reptiles and amphibians, and for less than 10% of described fish. For plants, threatened species assessments have been undertaken for less than 1% of described mosses, less than 72% of Gymnosperms, less than 5% of Dicotyledons, and less than 2% of Monocotyledons.
Beyond the group of described species, there are many species that have yet to be described and whose status is yet unknown.

Data on threatened species is better represented for mammals and birds than for other taxonomic groups. Far-ranging species, such as some marine species, may not be well-documented in the country data.

Sources
United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). 2002-2003. UNEP-WCMC Species Database. Cambridge,
U.K.: UNEP-WCMC. Web site: http://www.unep-wcmc.org.
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). 2002. 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN: Gland, Switzerland.
Available on-line at: http://www.redlist.org/info/tables/table5.html; http://www.redlist.org/info/tables/table1.html.
Legal Trade in Selected Wildlife and CITES Status

Year CITES ratified indicates the year that a country has either signed or ratified The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild.

Fauna and Flora. By signing the treaty, a state recognizes the authentic text, intends to complete the procedures for becoming legally bound by it, and is committed not to act against the treaty's objectives before ratification. Ratification (or its equivalents of acceptance, approval, or accession) binds the state to observe the treaty. Depending on a country's system of governance, signing the treaty may be simply an executive decision while ratification requires legislative approval. CITES is an international agreement to ensure that the survival of wild animals and plants is not threatened by international trade. It has been in force for almost 30 years; today, it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 30,000 species of animals and plants, whether they are traded as live specimens, fur coats, or dried herbs. CITES is legally binding on countries that have joined the Convention, and provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to make sure that CITES is implemented at the national level. More information is available at http://www.cites.org

View full technical notes on-line at http://earthtrends.wri.org/searchable_db/variablenotes_static.cfm?varid=632&theme=7
Net International Legal Trade Reported by CITES is the balance of imports minus exports of selected wildlife and wildlife products from the spectrum of wildlife and wildlife products for which export, re-export, and import permits are issued. Net exports are shown as negative, and all figures are for trade reported for the year 2000. Data on net exports and net imports as reported by CITES correspond to legal international trade and are based on permits issued,
not actual items traded. Figures may be overestimates if not all permits are used that year. In addition, some permits issued in one year are used at a later date. For these reasons, numbers of exports and imports may not match exactly for any given year. Regional values represent the sum of intra-regional and inter-regional trade for all countries in a given region, and is not limited to the sum of exports into and out of a region. World totals show the total number of exports, since calculating the balance of trade for the world would have canceled all figures. About 25,000 species of plants and 5,000 species of animals are listed under CITES; many species groups are not listed.

Live Lizards include the net number of import, export, and re-export permits issued in the year 2000 for individuals from all Sauria and Rhynchocephalia species listed under the CITES treaty, while Lizard Skins represent the net number of permits issued for whole skins for these groups of species.

Live Snakes include the net number of permits issued in the year 2000 for individuals from all Serpentes species listed under the CITES treaty, while Snake Skins represent the net number of permits issued for whole skins for these groups of species. Live Primates include the net number of permits issued in the year 2000 for individuals of all monkeys, apes, and prosimians listed under the CITES treaty.
Live Parrots include the net number of permits issued in the year 2000 for individuals of all Psittaciformes species listed under the CITES treaty. Crocodilian skins represent the number of permits issued in the year 2000 for whole skins belonging to individuals of Crocodylia species that are listed under the CITES treaty. Cat skins represent the number of permits issued in the year 2000 for whole skins belonging to individuals of Felidae species that are listed under the CITES treaty.

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